Bossing people around – imperative

 



     
   

    
🔴 See also: Imperative explained, Be careful, Example, Drills

                      

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Tell others what to do - Command them.
 

  What is the imperative?

The imperative commands or requests of others to do a particular act.

Imperatives are verbs.

Examples are go! sit! and eat!


The imperative explained with examples



Creating the imperative form in Arabic is easy --

The imperative uses the infinitive form of the verb without 'to':
to go --->
go!
to sit -->
sit!
to eat -->
eat!

to go = infinitive
go! = imperative

We usually use the imperative on the second person (singular or plural):

you =
inta, inti, and intu(um).

1st person

I/we

2nd person

you

3rd person

he/she/they


The second person addresses people directly (face-to-face) -- to command them.

Notice below an alif is added without a hamza for the imperative.

Also, the alif carries a kasra in the imperative.

Additional side note: Unless the verb has a damma in the middle radical in the indicative the alif carries a kasra in the imperative.

The last of the three examples below (0-3) does demonstrate a middle radical with a damma.

  View from right to left past tense, present tense, and imperative mood:


0-1

 0-2

0-3

رَجَعَ --- يَرْجِعُ --- اِرْجِعْ

سَمَعَ --- يَسْمَعُ --- اِسْمَع

كَتَبَ --- يَكْتُبُ --- اُكْتُبْ


MSA/Classical has a dual and plural feminine imperative as well. 

 

 

 


  An example of the imperative for the verb daxal (he entered).

Example

 

أنا
ana (no imperative)

 

إحنا

iḥna (no imperative)



  أنْتَ تَدْخُلُ

    إنْتَ تِدْخُلْ

  inta tidkhul



اُدْخُلْ
اِدْخُلْ

i
d/
khul  
Enter!




أنْتُمْ تَدْخُلونَ

إنْتُمْ تِدْخُلوا
2 intu(m) tidkhulu  






اُدْخُلوا

اِدْخُلـُوا
id/khu/lu

Enter!


3

  أنْتِ تَدْخُلينَ

اُدْخُلي


Enter!

2-1

أنْتُما تَدْخُلانِ



اُدْخُلا

Enter!







3-1

إنْتِ تِدْخُلي

  inti tidkhuli 


 

اِدْخُلـي
 
i
d/khu/li 
 Enter!

   

 

أنْتُنَّ تَدْخُلْنَ اُدْخُلْنَ


Enter!
       
 

هو

howwa  (no imperative)

 

هم

homma (no imperative) 

 

هي

hiyya (no imperative)           

 

 

 

Keep on going! You're almost there.

 


    Be careful. You asked and we answered.

T
he imperative is derived from the present tense verb after removing the prefixes and leaving the suffixes.

Also, if the first letter in the verb begins with a sequoun, after removing the prefixes, add a kasra under the alif to change the vowel sequence.

Why?

Because Arabic cannot have a sequoun on the first letter of a word.

 

 


   

  Read more on the imperative

 
   

 

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