Bossing people around – imperative

 



     
   

    
🔴 See also: Imperative explained, Be careful, Example, Drills

                      

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Tell others what to do - Command them.
 

  What is the imperative?

The imperative commands others to do an action.

Examples: go! sit! and eat!

Imperatives are verbs.


The imperative explained with examples



Creating the imperative in Arabic is easy --

Get the imperative from the infinitive without 'to':
 

Infinitive --> imperative

to go      --> go!
to sit    
 --> sit!
to eat    
--> eat!
 

Get the imperative from the second person.

you =
inta, inti, and intu(um) -- singular and plural

1st person

I/we

2nd person

you

3rd person

he/she/they


The second person lets people talk face-to-face.

 

Skip (not really necessary)

Note: Unless the verb has a damma in the middle radical, in the indicative, the alif carries a kasra in the imperative.

The last of the three examples below (0-3) does demonstrate a middle radical with a
damma.

  View from right to left past tense, present tense, and imperative mood:


0-1

 0-2

0-3

رَجَعَ --- يَرْجِعُ --- اِرْجِعْ

سَمَعَ --- يَسْمَعُ --- اِسْمَع

كَتَبَ --- يَكْتُبُ --- اُكْتُبْ

End of skip section.


MSA/Classical has a dual and plural feminine imperative as well
(dual f. /dual m.).

 


NOTE (See below for daxal):
 

1. An alif is added with no hamza for the imperative.

2. The
alif carries a kasra in the imperative.

 

  Imperative for the verb daxal (he entered).

Example

 

أنا
ana (no imperative)

 

إحنا

iHna (no imperative)



  أنْتَ تَدْخُلُ

    إنْتَ تِدْخُلْ

  inta tidkhul



اُدْخُلْ
اِدْخُلْ

i
d/
khul  
Enter!




أنْتُمْ تَدْخُلونَ

إنْتُمْ تِدْخُلوا
2 intu  tidkhulu  (m.)






اُدْخُلوا

اِدْخُلـُوا
id/khu/lu
Enter!


3

  أنْتِ تَدْخُلينَ

اُدْخُلي
Enter!

2-1

أنْتُما تَدْخُلانِ



اُدْخُلا
Enter!







3-1

إنْتِ تِدْخُلي

  inti tidkhuli 


 

اِدْخُلـي
 
i
d/khu/li 
 
Enter!

   

 

أنْتُنَّ تَدْخُلْنَ اُدْخُلْنَ
Enter!
       
 

هو

howwa  (no imperative)

 

هم

homma (no imperative) 

 

هي

hiyya (no imperative)           

 

 

 

Keep on going! You're almost there.

 

GAME: Egyptian Colloquial

 GAME: MSA/Classical

 

 GAME: Arabic using English

 

 

 
Skip (not really necessary)

T
he imperative is derived from the present tense verb.  Just remove the prefixe and leave the suffix.

Example:

    إنْتُمْ تِدْخُلوا  اِدْخُلـُوا  
 

Also, if the first letter of the verb begins with a sequoun, after removing the prefixes, add a kasra under the alif to change the vowel sequence.    

Example:

    تِدْخُلوا  اِدْخُلـُوا  

Why?

Because Arabic cannot have a
sequoun on the first letter of a word.

End of skip section.

 


   

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