The complex tense - kaan
(under 3.36 min each)
Talk about the Past using Kaan.
Using 1 kaan = was - كانْ within the equational sentence places the entire sentence into the past tense.
It's that easy.
And when kaan is used within a verbal sentence a series of different meanings occur depending on whether the sentence is past, present, or future.
- Example of kaan with the past tense
Beware: Kaan when used with the past tense verb puts the verb further into the past.
Example 1: kaan with the past tense verb
"He had eaten" is further in the past then "he ate."
Example of kaan used with a past tense verb
Past tense – 2 ‘akal
Note for MSA/Classical: The particle قد is added to denote a past action of eating.
كانَ قَدْ أكَلَ
Kaan with the past tense – 3 kaan ‘akal
He had eaten
Naturally, when actions are further in the past they require a second verb.
One verb is further in the past relative to the second verb.
Verb #1 and verb #2 below are in pink.
Side-point: Second verbs appear in the simple past.
Example of kaan placing the verb "further" into the past
هُوَ كانَ قَدْ أكَلَ ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إلىَ الْمَدْرَسَةِ
هُوَّ كانْ أكَلْ وِبَعْدينْ راحْ اِلْمَدْرَسَةْ
4 Huwwa kaan ‘akal wi baçdiin raaḥ il madrasa.
He had eaten and then went to school.
1st verb = eaten
2nd verb = went
Keep going! You're almost there.
- Example of kaan in the present tense
Beware: Kaan with the present tense places the action into the past progressive -- an action over a period of time in the past.
Example 2: kaan with the present tense verb
Example of kaan used with a present tense verb
Present tense – 5 Bi yaakul
He is eating
هُوَ كانَ يَأْكُلُ
هُوَّ كانْ بِياكُلْ
Kann with the Present tense – 6 Kaan biyaakul
He was eating
Read more on the verbal past tense sentence