Passive construction (advanced)

 


Why is learning the passive construction relevant for intermediate and advanced students?

Because we do not always express ourselves using the traditional word order:

subject (the "doer") + verb + object (the "receiver").

The passive is used to place less emphasis on the subject and MORE emphasis on the object.

More emphasis is on the object because of early placement within the sentence.

The passive in English is: object+ verb + subject.

The passive in Arabic is: verb + object (for MSA/Classical) OR/object + verb (for Colloquial/spoken Arabic).

 

 


Beware: In Arabic the subject disappears all together in the passive form. To retain the subject the active voice is required.

Also, the "object" in the passive is technically now the subject of the sentence.

 

 

 

Tenses

 

Active

 

Passive

1- Simple Present



 

1 On friday, Sherif cleans the room.

في يـَوْمِ اِلـْجـُمْعَةِ يـُنـَظـِّفُ شَريفٌ

حـُجـْرَتـَه

في يومْ اِلـْجُمْعَةْ شِريفْ بـِيـْنـَضَّفْ

 أودْتـُهْ


2 On friday, the room is cleaned (by Sherif).

في يـَوْمِ الْجـُمـْعـَةِ تـُنـَظـَّفُ اَلـْحـُجـْرَةُ

في يـَوْمِ اِلـْجـُمـْعـَةْ اِلْأودَة بـِتـِتْنـَضـَّفْ

2- Present Continuous


3 Right now, Hala is writing the letter.

حالـِياً هالـَةٌ تـَكـْتـُبُ خـِطابا

دِلْوَقْتِ هالـَةْ بـِتـِكـْتِبْ اِلـْجـَوابْ



4 Right now, the lettre is being written (by Hala).

حالـِياً يـُكـْتَبُ اَلـْخـِطابُ

دِلْوَقْتِ اِلـْجـَوابْ بـِيـْتْكـَتَبْ

3- Simple Past


5 Ibrahim built the house.

بَنىَ إبْراهيمُ الْبَيْتَ

إبْراهيم بَنىَ الْبيتْ


6 The house was built (by Ibrahim).

بُنِيَ اَلْبَيْتُ

اِلْبيتْ اِتْبَنىَ

4- Past Continuous






7 The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.

اَلْبائعُ كانَ يُساعِدُ اَلْمُشْتَري عِنْدَما دَخَلَ السّارِقُ اَلْمَحَلَّ

اِلْبَيّاعْ كانْ بِيْساعِدْ اِلزِّبونْ  لَمَّا الْحَرامي دَخَلْ اِلْمَحَلْ



8 The customer was being helped (by the salesman) when the thief came into the store.

اَلْمُشْتَري كانَ يُساعَدُ عِنْدما دَخَلَ اَلسّارِقُ اَلْمَحَلَّ

اِلزِّبونْ كان بِيِتْساعِدْ لَمّا اِلْحَرامي دَخَلْ اِلْمَحَلْ

5- Present Perfect


9 We have left that beach.

لَقَدْ تَرَكْنا هَذا الشّاطِئ

سِبْنا اِلشّاطئ دا


 

10 That beach has been left (by us).

هَذا الشّاطِئُ قَدْ تُرِكَ

اِلشّاطِئ دا اِتساب

6- Present Perfect Continuous



 

11 Recently, Ahmed has been doing the work.

مُؤَخَراَ ، أحْمَدُ هُوَ الذّي يَقومُ بِالْعَمَلِ

أخيراً، أحْمَدْ هُوَّ اِللي بِيِعْمِلْ اِلشًّغْلْ



12 Recently, the work has been being done (by Ahmed).

مُؤَخَراً، اَلْعَمَلُ نُفِّذَ

أخيراً، اِلشُّغْل بِيِتْعِمِلْ

7- Past Perfect







13 Omar had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.

عُمَرُ كانَ قَدْ قامَ بِإصْلاحِ عَرَباتٍ عَديدَةٍ قَبْلَ أنْ يَتَسَلَّمَرُخْصَتُهُ في اَلْميكانيكا

عُمَرْ كانْ صَلَّحْ عَرَبِيّاتْ كِتيرَةْ قَبْلْ ما اِسْتَلَمْ رُخْصِتُهُ فيْ اِلْمِكانيكا




   

13-1 Many cars had been repaired by Omar before he received his mechanic's license.

عَرَباتٌ عَديدَةٌ  يَحِبُ أنْ تُصْلَحَ قَبْلَ اَلْحُصولِ عَلىَ شِهادَةِ اَلْميكانيكا

عَرَبِيّاتْ كِتيرَةْ لازِمْ  تِتْصَلَّحْ قَبْلْ اِسْتِلامْ رُخْصِةْ اِلْميكانيكا

 

8- Past Perfect Continuous





 

14 Mona had been studying chemistry for two years before she sat for the exam..

مُنىَ كانَتْ تُذاكِراَلْكِمْياءَ  لِمُدَّةِ  سَنَتَيْنِ قَبْلَ أنْ تَتَقَدَّمَ لِلْإمْتَحانِ

مُنىَ كانِتْ بِتْذاكِراِلْكِمْياْ لِمُدِّةْ  سَنَتينْ قَبْلْ ما تِدْخُلْ اِلْإمْتَحانْ


 

 

14-1 chemistry had been studied for two years by Mona before she sat for the exam...

تُذاكَرُ اَلْكيمْياءُ لِمُدَّةِ سَنَتَيْنِ قَبْلَ اَلتَّقَدُمِ لِلْإمْتَحانِ

اِلْكيميا بِتِتْذاكِرْ لِمُدِّةْ سَنَتينْ قَبْلْ دُخولْ اِلْإمْتَحانْ

9- Simple Future

will


 

15 Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.

شَخْصٌ ما سَوْفَ يُكْمِلُ اَلْعَمَلَ عِنْدَ اَلسّاعَةِ اَلْخامَسَةِ

حَدْ حَيِكَمِّلْ اِلشُّغْلْ عَلىَ اِلسَّاعَةْ خَمْسَةْ


16 The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.

اَلْعَمَلُ سَوفَ يُكْتَمَلُ عِنْدَ اَلسّاعَةِ اَلْخامِسَةِ

اِلشُّغْلْ حَيِكْمَلْ عَلىَ السّاعَةْ خًمْسَةْ

10- Simple Future

be going to 



17 Sally is going to study the lesson tonight.

سَوْفَ تُذاكِرُ سالي اَلدَّرْسَ اَلْلَيْلَةَ

سالي حَتِذاكِرْ اِلدَّرْسْ اِلْليلَة



 

18 The lesson is going to be studied (by Sally tonight).

اَلدَّرْسُ سَوْفَ يُسْتَذكَرُ اَلْلَيْلَةَ

اِلدَّرْسْ حَيِتْذاكِرْ اِلْليلَةْ

11- Future Perfect

will (be going to)




21 They will have completed the project before the deadline.

سَوْفَ يَكونوا قَدْ أكْمَلوا اَلْمَشْروعَ قَبْلَ اَلْمُدَّةِ اَلْمُحَدَّدَةِ

حَيْكونوا كَمِّلوا اِلْمَشْروع قَبْل اِلتّاريخْ اِلْمُحَدَّدْ




22 The project will have been completed before the deadline.

اَلْمَشْروعُ سَوْفَ يَكونُ قَدْ اِكْتَمَلَ قَبْلَ اَلتّاريخِ اَلْمُحَدَّدِ

اِلْمَشْروع حَيْكونْ اِتْكَمِّلْ قَبْلْ اِلتّاريخْ اِلْمُحَدَّدْ

12- Would Always



 

27 The girl would always wear the blue dress.

كانَتْ اَلْفَتاةُ تَلْبِسُ دائماً اَلزِّيَ اَلْأزْرَقَ

اِلْبِنْتْ كانِتْ دايْما تِلْبِسْ اِلْفُسْتانْ اِلْأزْرَقْ



28 The blue dress would always be worn (by the girl).

اَلزِّيُّ اَلْأزْرَقُ هُوَ اَلّذي كانَ يُلْبَسُ دائماً

اِلْفُسْتانْ اِلْأزْرَقْ كانْ دايْماً هُوَّ اِلْلي يِتْلَبَسْ

13- Future in the Past Would




29 I knew Khaled would finish the work by 5:00 PM.

كُنْتُ أعْلَمُ أنَّ خالِداً  يَكونُ قَدْ أكْمَلَ عَمَلَهُ في اَلْخامِسَةِ مَساءً

كُنْتْ عارْفَةْ إنْ خالِدْ يِكونْ كَمِّلْ اِلشُّغْلْ عَلىَ اِلسّاعَة خامْسَةْ بَعْدْ اِلضُّهْرْ

 




30 I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.

كُنْتُ أعْلَمُ أنَّ اَلْعَمَلَ سَوْفَ يَكونُ  قَدْ اِكْتَمَلَ في اَلْخامِسَةِ مَساءً

كُنْتْ عارْفَةْ إنْ اِلشُّغْلْ حَيِكونْ كِمِلْ عَلىَ اِلسّاعَةْ خامْسَة بَعْدْ اِلضُّهْرْ

 

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